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Archive for June, 2010

SIMULASI DELTA MODULATION DENGAN PROGRAM OCTAVE

by on Jun.26, 2010, under Information Technology


DELTA MODULASI

  1. DESKRIPSI SIMULASI

Delta modulasi (DM) adalah metode konversi A/D yang sederhana dan handal pada sistem yang membutuhkan komunikasi digital secara serial dari sinyal analog. Delta Modulasi terdiri dari komparator pada bagian umpan maju dan integrator sebagai umpan balik untuk membentuk suatu loop kontrol yang sederhana. DM dibatasi oleh frekuensi dan amplitudo analog input yang akan diproses. Dengan DM, suatu input analog didekati melalui fungsi tangga yang bergerak naik turun dengan satu level kuantisasi (?) pada setiap level interval sampling (Ts). Contoh mengenai hal itu ditunjukkan pada gambar 1.1 dimana fungsi tangga berhimpit pada gelombang analog yang asli. Karakteristik terpenting untuk fungsi tangga ini adalah jalannya mirip biner. Pada setiap waktu pengambilan sampel, fungsi bergerak naik turun sebesar ? sehingga output dari proses modulasi delta dapat ditampilkan sebagai suatu digit digital biner tunggal untuk setiap sampel. Pada dasarnya, aliran bit lebih dihasilkan oleh pendekatan derivatif sinyal analog dari amplitudonya, yaitu A1 dibangkitkan bila fungsi tangga menaik sepanjang interval sedangkan 0 dibangkitkan dengan cara sebaliknya.

deltamodulasi1


Gambar 1.1 Contoh Modulasi Delta

Transisi (naik atau turun) yang terjadi di setiap interval pengambilan sampel dipilih sedemikian hingga fungsi tangga melintasi sedekat mungkin bentuk gelombang analog yang asli. Untuk transmisi yang terjadi adalah sebagai berikut:

pada setiap waktu pengambilan sampel, input analog dibandingkan dengan nilai yang terbaru dari fungsi tangga pendekatan. Bila nilai dari bentuk gelombang dijadikan sampel melebihi nilai pada fungsi tangga, maka hasil yang akan didapat adalah 1, bila sebaliknya,maka akan dihasilkan 0 (Nol). Jadi tangga selalu berubah sesuai arah sinyal inputnya. Dengan kata lain, output proses DM adalah runtutan biner yang dapat digunakan receiver untuk merekontruksi fungsi tangga, kemudian fungsi tangga dapat diperhalus lagi dengan melalui lebih banyak jenis proses integrasi agar dapat menghasilkan pendekatan analog dari sinyal input analog.

Ada dua parameter terpenting dalam skema DM yaitu ukuran langkah yang ditempuh tiap digit biner, ?, dan rate sampel. ? harus dipilih agar menghasilkan keseimbangan antara kedua jenis error dan derau. Bila bentuk gelombang analog berubah dengan lambat sekali, maka akan muncul derau kuantisasi. Derau ini meningkat sejalan dengan meningkatnya ?. Dengan kata lain, bila bentuk gelombang analog berubah lebih cepat dibanding kemampuan gelombang tangga, maka akan terjadi slope overload. Derau ini meningkat saat ? diturunkan. Sedangkan jika rate sampel ditingkatkan, maka akan meningkatkan tingkat keakuratan skema sehingga akan meningkatkan rate data sinyal output.

Keuntungan utama DM dibanding PCM adalah kesederhanaan dalam implementasinya. Umumnya PCM melampirkan karakteristik SNR yang lebih baik pada rate data yang sama.

  1. MANFAAT SIMULASI

1) Mendekati sinyal analog dengan serangkaian segmen.

2) Membandingkan setiap segmen dari sinyal yang didekati dengan gelombang analog yang asli untuk menentukan kenaikan atau penurunan amplitudo relative.

3) Mengetahui hasil dari proses untuk memunculkan state bit yang berurutan, dimana hal tersebut ditentukan oleh perbandingan kenaikan dan penurunan amplitudonya.

4) Mengetahui perubahan informasi yang dikirim saja, yaitu hanya dengan peningkatan atau penurunan amplitudo sinyal dari sampel yang dikirim sebelumnya saja, sedangkan kondisi perubahannya tidak menyebabkan sinyal termodulasi untuk tetap berada di keadaan 0 atau 1 yang sama dari sampel sebelumnya.

  1. KODE PROGRAM

Program untuk simulasi Delta Modulation (DM) ini dijalankan di OCTAVE. Berikut ini Source Codes simulasi Modulasi Deltanya :

input('ENCODING DATA');

input('DELTA MODULATION');

input('x1 = Batas Awal');

input('x2 = Rentang');

input('x3 = Batas Akhir');

x1 = input('masukan nilai x1 :', 'str');

x1 = str2num(x1);

x2 = input('masukan nilai x2 :', 'str');

x2 = str2num(x2);

x3 = input('masukan nilai x3 :', 'str');

x3 = str2num(x3);

disp ('x1 ='); disp (x1);

disp ('x2 ='); disp (x2);

disp ('x3 ='); disp (x3);

x = x1:x2:x3;

y = sin(x);

stairs (x,y)

subplot(2,1,1); plot(x,y)

i=1

while(i<=6.28/0.1)

if(y(i)<y(i+1))

y(i)=1

else

y(i)=0

end

i=i+1

end

subplot(2,1,2); stairs(x,y)

  1. OUTPUT PROGRAMdm

Hasil Program :

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3 Spiritual Infectious Diseases

by on Jun.21, 2010, under Information Lifestyles

deseasesCommon diseases known to man
transmitted infections are caused by viruses, bacteria or other microorganisms. But there are also unwitting spiritual disease that can be transmitted to one another. Here's three spiritual disease that can be contagious.

As quoted from the HuffingtonPost, Sunday (6/20/2010) there is a disease that can be recognized as a contagious spiritual disease that is common, namely:

Imitation Spiritual
This condition is the tendency to talk, dress and berindak as one might imagine that on a spiritual person. So people with this condition are just trying to follow someone else.

Because spiritual experiences
In this disease, the individual ego is identified by the spiritual experiences they experienced. This condition can sometimes influence the thinking of others. In most cases this condition will not last forever, but sometimes lasts in the long term.

Ego Spiritual
This disease occurs when a person's personality structure and ego become so ingrained with a deep spiritual concepts. When the ego becomes spiritual, a person becomes unable to understand and all this in the name of spirituality.

Contagious spiritual disease is derived from one's ego and is a condition that deceives himself. Since most of these conditions do not come from him but because of the influence of the people or the environment around them.

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What The Difference Psychologist and Psychiatrist?

by on Jun.21, 2010, under Information Lifestyles

psicologyMany laymen mistakenly regarding psychologists and psychiatrists and assume they are the same as it involves mental problems. Actually, what distinguishes the two professions?

If you want it simple, short explanations like this, the psychiatrist can provide medication, while psychologists can not prescribe.

Meanwhile, if seen from a background in education, psychologists are psychology graduates who have participated in undergraduate academic programs (undergraduate psychology) and graduate school as a psychologist.

While psychiatrists are specialists who have completed undergraduate education degree (bachelor of medicine), education and the education profession as a medical specialist psychiatric unit.

As quoted from the Code of Conduct issued Himpsi Psychology (Psychologists Association of Indonesia), Monday (21/06/2010), psychologists and psychiatrists are equally deep psychological science and all things related to human development.

Both these professions also have the same concentration practices, such as handling, prevention, diagnose and provide therapy.

However, the most distinguishing here is in terms of drug therapy (pharmacotherapy). Drug therapy may only be performed by a psychiatrist, that in fact the medical backgrounds more involved in the clinical handling. While psychologists focus more on social aspects, such as providing treatment in the form of psychological therapy (psychotherapy).
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10 Factors That 90 Percent Reduce Stroke Risk

by on Jun.19, 2010, under Information Lifestyles

strokeThere are many risk factors that can trigger a stroke. However, a recent study classifies 10 risk factors which, if avoided may reduce the risk by 90 percent.

Quoted from Dailymail, the ten factors are identified when researchers from McMaster University studied 3000 patients with stroke. Lifestyle of the patients compared with 3,000 healthy people as control.

The results showed, the first five risk factors play a role in 80 percent of cases of stroke in patients. All five are high blood pressure, smoking, abdominal fat, unhealthy diet and lack of exercise.

When added 5 next factor, the risk of stroke increased to 90 percent. Five second factor is diabetes, excessive alcohol consumption, stress or depression, heart problems and weak molecule apolipoprotein isebut ayng blood.

“With the discovery of the ten factors, interventions that target low blood pressure and smoking less, exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet can reduce stroke risk substantially,” said Dr Martin O'Donnell is involved in the study.

Stroke occurs when the brain deprived of oxygen. The most common type of ischemic stroke, which occurs when blood clots block blood flow to the brain. Can also be triggered by the outbreak of the blood vessels, causing bleeding in the brain (stroke hemoraghy).

Of all risk factors, high blood pressure is the most important factor, which causes a third of stroke cases. Compared with normal people, people with high blood pressure 2.5 times greater risk of stroke.

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Discover The 5 Types of Headaches

by on Jun.19, 2010, under Uncategorized

headacheTreating headaches should not be in vain, because the types and causes vary. Because if not careful, one can instead choose drugs trigger other types of headaches.

Kind of a mild headache that most drugs can indeed heal with regular headaches. But there also must be followed by antibiotics, or even a supplement to maintain nerve function.

In order not wrong in choosing the drug, identify five types of headaches, as quoted from Health.com, the following.

1. Tension headache
Is a type of headache most common form of pain or soreness that is felt constantly around your temples and neck and head back. Not bad migraine, tension headache is not accompanied by nausea and vomiting and not too distracting activity. Drugs that are sold free powerful enough to handle, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen.

Experts suspect that the cause of this type of headache is the contraction of neck and scalp that usually accompanies stress conditions. Can also be triggered by changes in chemical composition in the brain.

2. Cluster headache
Type of headache this one more in men than in women. Usually occurs suddenly in one group, with symptoms of severe pain on one side of the head. Sometimes accompanied by watery eyes, nasal congestion and runny snot on the same side of the head. Someone who experienced it would feel nervous, uncomfortable as in migraine sufferers.

The exact cause is unknown, but believed to be the interference with the genetic component. There is no drug that can effectively cure, but medications can reduce pain symptoms.

3. Sinus headache
Experiencing sinus inflammation due to infection can cause pain in the head. Usually accompanied by fever, and need to be checked with MRI or CT scan to determine changes in fluid composition, or with fiber optic to see any pus.
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BROWN EYES More Character Compared Than BLUE EYES

by on Jun.17, 2010, under Information Lifestyles

eyes1Dominance of a person in a group is associated with eye color, especially in men. The man with brown eyes tend to be more influential than men with blue eyes, although its cause is not with the eyes.

Quoted from MSNBC,  this trend was revealed when the experts in the Czech Republic conducted a study on 62 people. Participants were asked to rank the 80 photos of men and women, related to the observed dominance impression of his face.

Eye color in these photos had been modified at random by the program Photoshop. Images that previously have blue eyes changed to brown or another color, and vice versa.

When compared, the most dominant impression was found by participants in a brown eyed man in the photo although his eye color has changed to other color. This trend does not occur on the image of women.

This proves, despite the tendencies associated with eye color, but its cause lies not in the eye. Some speculation then spreads to explain it.

The first allegation, eye color have a relationship with a face so his impression remains the same even though eye color changed. Brown-eyed men generally have a wide chin and mouth, nose, bigger, closer distance of both eyes wide and eyebrows.

“This finding is very surprising, totally unexpected. It should be investigated further, what eye color connection with face shape,” said Benedict Jones of the University of Aberdeen who are involved in such research.

The next alleged unequal treatment in childhood. Perhaps because of the cute, boy with blue eyes tend to be much longer treated as a child than brown-eyed peers.

blue-eyesThis conjecture is strengthened by the results of previous research. Boys in blue-eyed preschoolers more likely to say they have problems than brown-eyed, although the trend was lost with age.

The next speculation trying to combine both the above allegations. Underdevelopment experienced by blue-eyed man in childhood causes hormonal differences in growth, so that gives specificity to the face shape.

Whatever the cause, researchers believe that the new blue eyes known between 6000 to 10,000 years ago. Prior to the mutation which reduces the production of brown pigment in the iris, everyone has brown eyes.

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Human Brain Always Looking Over His Body Width

by on Jun.16, 2010, under Information Lifestyles

mirrorAlthough the reality was very thin, every woman must have looked in the mirror and then anxiously, “Do I look fat?”. Do not rush to say it Feminisme, because the human brain is the body's own see 69 percent wider than the actual size.

Quoted from the Telegraph, this phenomenon is revealed in research conducted by scientists at University College London. Believed, these findings can explain the causes of eating disorders like anorexia.

In that study, 18 volunteers were asked to invert the palm of his hand and then closed with a board. Then, from behind the boards that the volunteers were asked to estimate the location of 10 points and sections of the fingertips and then show it with the pointer.

The points shown were then compared with actual hand shapes and sizes. It turned out that these estimates form the size of 69 percent wider than the original. Similarly, long fingers, the volunteers estimated 27.9 percent on average shorter than the original.

Dr Matthew Longo who led the study said, estimating the error occurs in the subconscious and involve parts of the brain that perceives sizes. These sections make someone aware of the location of the body even with my eyes closed.

“Someone certainly recognize parts of his body, proved to be one of the volunteers did not recognize her own image even if made in various sizes. But in estimating the position, it does not apply,” Dr Longo.

This effect becomes very visible in women, who tend to be sensitive to body size in certain parts such as stomach and hips. Experts peyakini this is closely related to anorexia.

“We know that patients with anorexia nervousa also experience disturbances in body imaging. They may feel fat, even though the reality was very thin,” said Susan Ringwood from the Beat, a charity for anorexia.

Ringwood assess these findings could explain the conditions experienced by patients with anorexia are more rational. Feeling that her body is more fat is not simply a form of anxiety, but rather triggered by the natural perception in the brain.

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Signs of HIV-Affected People

by on Jun.10, 2010, under Uncategorized

hivHIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the most feared disease because there is no vaccine or medicine that can cure him. Recognize the symptoms of HIV for early detection.

This deadly virus will attack the immune system that makes the body lose the ability to fight disease, so the body more susceptible to various diseases.

If these symptoms are not treated immediately, it can cause AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) which is a deadly disease. AIDS arise as a result of the proliferation of HIV virus in the human body.

The symptoms that arise from HIV can affect a person gradually. Once the virus enters the body, then the virus will evolve rapidly.

This virus will attack the CD4 lymphocytes (T cells) and destroys white blood cells thus affecting the immune system. Each stage of infection will show different symptoms.

The initial phase of this viral infection usually does not show signs or symptoms, new symptoms will appear after two to four weeks after infection. A person may complain of severe headache accompanied by fever and persistent.

As quoted Menshealth.about.com, Thursday (6/10/2010) when someone is infected, the initial symptoms sometimes appear similar to the flu or viral infection medium.

Early signs and symptoms of HIV disease include fever, headache, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea and swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin.

These symptoms are similar to other viral infections. Therefore, many HIV-infected people do not realize that he had been infected for years to reach an advanced stage.

(continue reading…)

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Ball Watch Create Safe Patient High Blood

by on Jun.08, 2010, under Uncategorized

ballFor football fans, the 2010 World Cup mat is an opportunity to celebrate, not least for people who suffer from hypertension aka high blood pressure. But there are several ways to get people with hypertension can safely enjoy the World Cup.

On the other hand, the excitement with the coming World Cup season can cause a victim from the health side, particularly among football fans who suffer from hypertension. Sometimes, this can lead to fatal consequences.

However, football fans are suffering from hypertension should not be discouraged, because there are several ways that you can safely enjoy the World Cup without the worry with sustained hypertension.

As quoted from Buzzle, Tuesday (06/08/2010), the following six ways to enjoy the World Cup is safe for patients with hypertension:

1. Avoid consuming beverages that keep you awake

To be able to enjoy the live broadcast of World Cup depends on the time zone of a country, in Indonesia could be aired late at night. Therefore, usually a lot of people drink caffeine or other stimulants that can make the eyes stay awake.

But this should not be made by football fans who suffer from hypertension. Caffeine will only aggravate your blood pressure and can be fatal. We recommend that people who suffer from hypertension, sleep first before watching a live broadcast of the World Cup.

2. Avoid watching in public places

For people who suffer from hypertension, do not watch the game on a crowded public place or places, such as pubs and restaurants, which many people commented haphazardly, smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol. Comments are not pleasant, smoke cigarettes and alcoholic beverages can aggravate the situation of people who suffer from blood pressure in hypertension.

3. Enjoy the World Cup with loved ones

For people with hypertension, secure and best way to enjoy the World Cup is surrounded by loved ones. Besides giving comfort, people who love you of course will always keep and pay attention to your condition, because they know that most of your health condition.

4. Avoid watching the penalties

For football fans who suffer from hypertension, penalties can be likened to watching a worm doused brine. Most of the fatal incidents that occurred during the heart of World Cup season because of patient watching penalties.

Roberto Baggio and Diego Maradona, two legends of football, known to pass through penalty kicks with the health consequences are very bad for the fans around the world.

So, if one of the 2010 World Cup matches should be determined by penalty kicks, then the best way for patients with hypertension is to avoid watching it.

5th. Avoid excessive celebration when you win winning team

The World Cup is identical with a massive celebration when the football team dijagokan can become champions. But for football fans who suffer from hypertension should not do such a celebration.

If a hypertensive dancing naked in the streets, jumping on top of vehicles, scream or cry out for a wild victory celebration, then it is probable that person will be celebrating another victory in the morgue.

6. Remember to keep your diet and arrange a consultation with a doctor

Meriahnya World Cup should not make you forget the promise of a healthy diet and consulting a doctor. Hypertensive patients could have been enjoying the World Cup that lasted four years, the home still apply healthy lifestyles.

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Men with Low IQ Nine Times More Likely Suicide

by on Jun.04, 2010, under Uncategorized

manSomeone who has suicidal feelings in general, depression is triggered by factors that can not be controlled. And a recent study found that men who have low IQ nine times more prone to commit suicide.

Previous studies have found that among young men who tried to commit suicide has been linked with intelligence level or the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is lower.

From the analysis based on Sweden's 1.1 million people's lives, found that there was a link between low IQ and suicide attempts.

Low level of intelligence which is expected to play a significant role in the attempted suicide. These researchers noted in a report published online in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) June 3, 2010 edition.

In the new study, researchers at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, examined the medical records of men born between 1950 and 1976. The men are known to have never experienced the physical and mental exams for 24 years.

“1.6 percent of men from 17 736 participants reported data had been rushed to hospital for attempted suicide,” says Finn Rasmussen, a professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, as reported from MSN.
(continue reading…)

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