Yusran Adhitya Kurniawan’s Blog

Information Technology

SIMULASI DELTA MODULATION DENGAN PROGRAM OCTAVE

by on Jun.26, 2010, under Information Technology


DELTA MODULASI

  1. DESKRIPSI SIMULASI

Delta modulasi (DM) adalah metode konversi A/D yang sederhana dan handal pada sistem yang membutuhkan komunikasi digital secara serial dari sinyal analog. Delta Modulasi terdiri dari komparator pada bagian umpan maju dan integrator sebagai umpan balik untuk membentuk suatu loop kontrol yang sederhana. DM dibatasi oleh frekuensi dan amplitudo analog input yang akan diproses. Dengan DM, suatu input analog didekati melalui fungsi tangga yang bergerak naik turun dengan satu level kuantisasi (?) pada setiap level interval sampling (Ts). Contoh mengenai hal itu ditunjukkan pada gambar 1.1 dimana fungsi tangga berhimpit pada gelombang analog yang asli. Karakteristik terpenting untuk fungsi tangga ini adalah jalannya mirip biner. Pada setiap waktu pengambilan sampel, fungsi bergerak naik turun sebesar ? sehingga output dari proses modulasi delta dapat ditampilkan sebagai suatu digit digital biner tunggal untuk setiap sampel. Pada dasarnya, aliran bit lebih dihasilkan oleh pendekatan derivatif sinyal analog dari amplitudonya, yaitu A1 dibangkitkan bila fungsi tangga menaik sepanjang interval sedangkan 0 dibangkitkan dengan cara sebaliknya.

deltamodulasi1


Gambar 1.1 Contoh Modulasi Delta

Transisi (naik atau turun) yang terjadi di setiap interval pengambilan sampel dipilih sedemikian hingga fungsi tangga melintasi sedekat mungkin bentuk gelombang analog yang asli. Untuk transmisi yang terjadi adalah sebagai berikut:

pada setiap waktu pengambilan sampel, input analog dibandingkan dengan nilai yang terbaru dari fungsi tangga pendekatan. Bila nilai dari bentuk gelombang dijadikan sampel melebihi nilai pada fungsi tangga, maka hasil yang akan didapat adalah 1, bila sebaliknya,maka akan dihasilkan 0 (Nol). Jadi tangga selalu berubah sesuai arah sinyal inputnya. Dengan kata lain, output proses DM adalah runtutan biner yang dapat digunakan receiver untuk merekontruksi fungsi tangga, kemudian fungsi tangga dapat diperhalus lagi dengan melalui lebih banyak jenis proses integrasi agar dapat menghasilkan pendekatan analog dari sinyal input analog.

Ada dua parameter terpenting dalam skema DM yaitu ukuran langkah yang ditempuh tiap digit biner, ?, dan rate sampel. ? harus dipilih agar menghasilkan keseimbangan antara kedua jenis error dan derau. Bila bentuk gelombang analog berubah dengan lambat sekali, maka akan muncul derau kuantisasi. Derau ini meningkat sejalan dengan meningkatnya ?. Dengan kata lain, bila bentuk gelombang analog berubah lebih cepat dibanding kemampuan gelombang tangga, maka akan terjadi slope overload. Derau ini meningkat saat ? diturunkan. Sedangkan jika rate sampel ditingkatkan, maka akan meningkatkan tingkat keakuratan skema sehingga akan meningkatkan rate data sinyal output.

Keuntungan utama DM dibanding PCM adalah kesederhanaan dalam implementasinya. Umumnya PCM melampirkan karakteristik SNR yang lebih baik pada rate data yang sama.

  1. MANFAAT SIMULASI

1) Mendekati sinyal analog dengan serangkaian segmen.

2) Membandingkan setiap segmen dari sinyal yang didekati dengan gelombang analog yang asli untuk menentukan kenaikan atau penurunan amplitudo relative.

3) Mengetahui hasil dari proses untuk memunculkan state bit yang berurutan, dimana hal tersebut ditentukan oleh perbandingan kenaikan dan penurunan amplitudonya.

4) Mengetahui perubahan informasi yang dikirim saja, yaitu hanya dengan peningkatan atau penurunan amplitudo sinyal dari sampel yang dikirim sebelumnya saja, sedangkan kondisi perubahannya tidak menyebabkan sinyal termodulasi untuk tetap berada di keadaan 0 atau 1 yang sama dari sampel sebelumnya.

  1. KODE PROGRAM

Program untuk simulasi Delta Modulation (DM) ini dijalankan di OCTAVE. Berikut ini Source Codes simulasi Modulasi Deltanya :

input('ENCODING DATA');

input('DELTA MODULATION');

input('x1 = Batas Awal');

input('x2 = Rentang');

input('x3 = Batas Akhir');

x1 = input('masukan nilai x1 :', 'str');

x1 = str2num(x1);

x2 = input('masukan nilai x2 :', 'str');

x2 = str2num(x2);

x3 = input('masukan nilai x3 :', 'str');

x3 = str2num(x3);

disp ('x1 ='); disp (x1);

disp ('x2 ='); disp (x2);

disp ('x3 ='); disp (x3);

x = x1:x2:x3;

y = sin(x);

stairs (x,y)

subplot(2,1,1); plot(x,y)

i=1

while(i<=6.28/0.1)

if(y(i)<y(i+1))

y(i)=1

else

y(i)=0

end

i=i+1

end

subplot(2,1,2); stairs(x,y)

  1. OUTPUT PROGRAMdm

Hasil Program :

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Terrible Effects of Electrocuted

by on May.24, 2010, under Information Technology

electricityShocking by electricity can be a scary thing for anyone, because if the high-voltage or prolonged can cause death. Any injury suffered by the people who electrocuted?

Electricity is one of the requirements for helping a variety of activities. But if someone is not careful in its use, it is actually useful things could endanger yourself and those around him.

As quoted from HowStuffWorks, human body is a conductor (electrically conductive) that is very good, because about 70 percent of the human body consists of water.

This makes it very easy flow of electricity through the human body in seconds. The higher the electric current and long accepted by the body, the more serious injuries caused.

Regardless of the electricity received by the body still cause shock or vibration. But this stress can sometimes be felt by someone but there is also not felt by the body.

Minimal small electrical shocks can cause a person experience headaches, fatigue or muscle spasms, unconsciousness, and shortness of breath while temporary.

But if it lasts longer or in higher voltage can cause burns, vision loss, brain damage, heart attacks, stop breathing and death.

If someone in shock for a moment, then only will cause pain. But if the voltage is high enough can also cause fatal, although only a few seconds. For example if the flow reaches 100 mA, the possibility can cause death in just over two seconds.


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D’Genetic of Technology Moving From Lab to Medical Practices

by on May.24, 2010, under Information Technology

technology2In January, practicing doctors and doctors-to-be entered a new class at the Medical College of Wisconsin with a futuristic name, “Translational Genetics.” The idea was simpler than it sounded: We are fast approaching the time when doctors will use our genetic profiles to treat us.

One of the students was Kevin Regner, a practicing kidney doctor at Froedtert Hospital, who had been hearing for years, “Personalized medicine is just around the corner.” Doctors will tailor treatments to each patient's genes and the risks they reveal. It will all be routine.

Regner had doubts. Sequencing of the first human genome in 2003 took more than a decade and cost about $600 million – an effort too herculean to assume doctors would repeat it with patients and insurance companies would foot the bill anytime soon.

But Regner was in for a surprise. As he and his classmates listened, Howard Jacob, head of the college's Human and Molecular Genetics Center, described what has happened since completion of the genome project. He showed two photos: a machine that helped sequence the first human genome in 2003, and then a machine the Medical College has today. The new model does the work of 200 of the old ones; it can sequence a human genome in a few months for several hundred thousand dollars.

And the Medical College has already ordered next-generation sequencers. Within less than a decade, a complete genetic blueprint could be attainable in 15 minutes for as little as $100.

Moreover, in a case that suggests the technology is beginning the journey from research to medical practice, Jacob described how he and his colleagues used a targeted version of gene-sequencing to diagnose and treat an apparently new disease in a young boy at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.

In the audience, Regner had a moment of recognition. “It's likely we'll see this kind of personalized medicine in my lifetime,” he said, “and in the course of my medical practice.”

Med schools join in

Medical schools are coming to this recognition as well – albeit too slowly for some. Already, companies such as 23andMe and Navigenics are selling personal genetics tests, offering consumers the chance to learn their risks for dozens of diseases. This month pharmacy giant Walgreens announced it would sell a personal genetic test in thousands of stores across the country, though the company put the plans on hold after federal regulators said the tests had not been approved.

“More and more patients are going to be walking into their doctor's office with genes sequenced,” said George Church, a genetics professor at Harvard Medical School and one of the pioneers of gene sequencing. “Very few doctors even know where to refer them.”

In years to come, however, some say gene-sequencing and analysis could take a place in the medical tool kit alongside such fundamentals as anatomy and family history.

Eric J. Topol, director of the Scripps Translational Science Institute in La Jolla, Calif., said there are now genetic tests that determine how patients will respond to specific medications such as Plavix, a widely used blood clot prevention drug. Some tests even reveal appropriate dosages. Yet when researchers surveyed more than 10,000 physicians, just 10% said they had the necessary information and training to use the tests, according to a report in October by the American Medical Association and Medco.

“The resistance to change in medicine, which is profound,” Topol said, “is something that is part lack of education.”

Some of the country's leading medical schools and institutions have launched programs to close the education gap.

• At Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, doctors started a first-in-the-nation program last fall to teach pathology residents about genomics and to train them to interpret genetic data. Residents all had the option of using a Navigenics test to search their own genes for common mutations. Twelve out of 17 volunteered for the testing and discussed the results with genetics counselors, said Mark Boguski, an associate professor at Harvard Medical School who works in Beth Israel's pathology department.

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New Technology Helps Cumbrian Hospital Patients Rate Care Rrom Their Beds

by on May.16, 2010, under Information Technology

technology1Cleanliness, food and ward environment are all now able to be rated by patients using new hand-held, touch-screen monitors.

Bosses at North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust which runs the Cumberland Infirmary in Carlisle and West Cumberland Hospital in Whitehaven say this will enable patients to give their “real time” views and say any issues raised can be dealt with immediately.

Once the views are collected, a new web-based programme will then be used to monitor how patients think the hospital is performing.

The scheme, which replaces a system of sending questionnaires to people once they have been discharged, has been developed by Sandy Brown, director of nursing, quality and governance and Mark Irving, cancer nurse specialist. It will cost £8,000 per year, using eight touch screen pads which will be given out to patients during their stay.

It has been piloted for the past 12 months at the two hospitals and could now be rolled out to other hospitals across the country.

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New Roaming in Technology Turns To Wi-Fi into 4G

by on May.16, 2010, under Information Technology

4gLund, Sweden – Swedish startup Anyfi Networks today came out of stealth mode to present Anyfi.net, a Wi-Fi roaming technology they hope will shake up the mobile broadband industry. This new technology lets an Internet service provider offer the same Wi-Fi user experience both at home and on the go.

“Until now Wi-Fi hotspots have been difficult to use and inherently insecure. Our solution works with any Wi-Fi device out of the box and provides fully automatic WPA security” said Björn Smedman, CEO.

The trick is combining Wi-Fi with IP, Internet Protocol, to break the tie between logical network and physical infrastructure, much in the same way as Voice over IP separates your phone service from the physical line.

“You can think of it as Wi-Fi over IP” explained Björn Smedman. “Our cloud based matchmaking service keeps track of each device's favorite network and makes sure it is available from the closest access point. By forwarding the raw Wi-Fi radio traffic over the Internet we can ensure security, even if an attacker is in control of the access point.”

According to the company this high level of security is one of the key features making the technology suitable for integration in modems of various types, and this is what makes it potentially disruptive, effectively turning Wi-Fi into a full-blown 4G technology.

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Increasing Human Resources In Indonesia Through Information And Communication Technology With The Use of Various Applications on The Internet

by on May.04, 2010, under Information Technology

Along with the development of Information and Communication Technology which has grown  significantly, from these things start popping up various jargon beginning with E, ranging from e-commerce, e-books, e-learning, e-laboratory,mind-of-technology e-education, eLibrary, and so forth. The prefix e-means implicitly understood electronics technology based on digital electronics.

1. E-BOOK
E-book (Electronic Book) is one that utilizes computer technology to display multimedia information in a concise and dynamic. In addition, an e-book can be integrated with a variety of impressions, such as:
? sound,
? graphs,
? image
? animation, and
? movie
so the information is presented more in terms of interface and minimalist, as compared with conventional books because the e-book is the displacement of conventional book into electronic form that can be displayed by the computer. With this technology, of course, hundreds of books can be stored in one CD only.
e-book
2. E-LEARNING
e-learning is a teaching model utilizing electronic technology as a means of presenting and distributing information. In the definition is covered by radio and television broadcasts of education as one form of e-learning. Although by definition radio and television education is one form of e-learning, is generally agreed that e-learning reaches its peak form after synergize with internet technology. Internet-based learning or web-based learning in its simplest form is a web-site that used to present learning materials. This allows learners to access learning resources provided by resource persons or facilitators whenever desired. If needed, can also provide a special mailing-list for the learning site which serves as a forum for discussion, or with a Video Conference which is currently widely used some school or university to conduct direct instruction (Online) with schools or universities abroad.

elearning

3. E-zine
E-zine that comes from the word e-magazine, is a digital form of conventional magazines. Magazine publishing digital format allows suppressed production costs (because they do not need to print) and distribution (for once uploaded to the server, the whole world can access it). Updated content can also be done very quickly so that the latest developments can be served faster. Included in this category is the e-zine e-newspaper that focuses on the latest news and e-journal that focuses on reporting research results.

ezine
4. E-LABORATORY
E-laboratory represents a digital form of facilities and laboratory processes can be simulated digitally. Basically, this software is the animation and simulation software that can be packaged in a CD, DVD and presented in this web-site as a web-based applications (software that runs on Internet network).

e-laboratory

5. BLOG
Blogs or weblogs are the latest developments in the field of web-based applications. The idea originally started by providing an electronic diary (electronic diaries) for adolescents. Users (Users) can fill in the diary as easy as writing an email, upload (upload) to the server simply by clicking on the icon, and the result is the impression the writing on the browser screen. Internet users in Indonesia and abroad can view these publications by accessing a website address easily and quickly, for example:
• http://blog.djarumbeasiswaplus.org/yusranadhityakurniawan/
• http://yusran.blog.unsoed.ac.id
• http://freeofmp3.blogspot.com
• http://yusran-kurniawan.blog.friendster.com
Dilihjat content in terms of its content, is currently a blog containing a lot of ideas, ideas, and personal opinions about an interesting issue subjectively. Although the accuracy of the information presented is debatable, but most of all blogs allow someone who does not have a web-site design knowledge can easily create a personal web-site and manage and update content very easily and with a short time.
blog
Besides the ease of availability of many other free blog servers. In the context of their utilization for the learning process, the content of the blog content of learners, for example, can be feedback to the facilitators and indirectly can be Jurnalist because it can provide any information to the community with language and thought to himself.


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Implementasi Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi Sebagai Peningkatan Kualitas Sumber Daya Manusia di Era Globalisasi

by on May.04, 2010, under Information Technology


technologyPerkembangan teknologi di era globalisasi ini berkembang dengan pesat, banyak sekali kemajuan-kemajuan yang dapat kita rasakan dalam perkembangan teknologi, terutama dalam bidang Telekomunikasi, Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK). Salah satu kemajuannya yaitu pada jaringan komputer yang saat ini sudah banyak digunakan di berbagai perusahaan, Sekolah, Universitas, dan bahkan di perumahan.

Dengan tersedianya jaringan komputer tersebut, berbagai macam pekerjaan dapat selesai dengan cepat sehingga dapat mengefisienkan waktu.  Selain itu juga jaringan komputer ini mampu menghubungkan komputer satu dengan komputer lainnya. Sebagai contoh dari jaringan komputer adalah internet.

Saat ini penggunaan internet sudah dapat di gunakan untuk berbagai macam hal, sebagai contoh seperti mencari bahan naskah, informasi, lapangan pekerjaan, mengakses fitur lain dan bisnis sebagai mata pencaharian yang dapat menghasilkan keuntungan (uang) dari akses Internet itu sendiri. Dari begitu banyak manfaat yang dapat kita peroleh dengan mudah, Internet menjadikan kebutuhan primer bagi beberapa orang, sehingga Internet disebut juga sebagai jaringan raksasa yang telah menjadi realitas dalam kebutuhan informasi dan komunikasi jutaan manusia di dunia ini.

Persaingan yang begitu ketat di era globalisasi saat ini, hal tersebut membuat tiap individu harus berjuang semaksimal mungkin untuk bersaing dengan individu yang lainnya agar tidak kalah dan terlindas dengan perkembangan zaman. Saat ini pemanfaatan teknologi informasi, komunikasi, dan telekomunikasi sudah dipergunakan dengan cermat dan tepat oleh masyarakat Indonesia, hal ini dibuktikan dengan banyaknya pengguna internet yang memanfaatkan jasa internet untuk menghasilkan uang dari Web, Blog, dan Jejaring sosial (Internet Marketing).

Pemanfaatan semua media tersebut harus dipergunakan sebaik mungkin agar masyarakat Indonesia dapat lebih maju, baik itu wawasannya maupun keahlian dalam penggunaan teknologinya. Karena jika penggunaan internet tesebut tidak dimanfaatkan dengan bijak dan semaksimal mungkin, maka fungsinya akan sia-sia dan tidak terarah dengan baik, oleh karena itu selain meningkatkan bagaimana penggunaan internet secara efektif dan efisien, maka diperlukan sosialisasi mengenai kewirausahaan untuk menunjang kebutuhan Internet Marketing.

Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi memiliki dua aspek, yaitu :

  1. Teknologi Informasi dan
  2. Teknologi Komunikasi.

Teknologi Informasi, meliputi segala hal yang berkaitan dengan proses, penggunaan sebagai alat bantu, manipulasi, dan pengelolaan informasi. Teknologi Komunikasi merupakan segala hal yang berkaitan dengan penggunaan alat bantu untuk memproses dan mentransfer data dari perangkat yang satu ke lainnya. Karena itu, Teknologi Informasi dan Teknologi Komunikasi adalah suatu padanan yang tidak terpisahkan yang mengandung pengertian luas tentang segala kegiatan yang terkait dengan pemrosesan, manipulasi, pengelolaan, dan transfer atau pemindahan informasi antar media yang stu dengan media yang lainnya.

Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi saat ini memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam dunia pendidikan, karena dengan pendidikan dimungkinkan terjadinya penyebarluasan Teknologi Informasi dan transformasi ilmu pengetahuan untuk sektor-sektor pendidikan. Saat ini para generasi muda sangat terbantu dengan adanya internet dalam mengerjakan berbagai tugas sekolah atau tugas kuliah. Dengan adanya perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasidi era globalisasi ini, para generasi muda dapat belajar dan memanfaatkan TIK dalam kehidupan mereka sehari-hari dengan baik dan seoptimal mungkin.

Sebagai contoh penerapan TIK yang sudah ada saat ini yaitu dalam bidang e-education, dimana kita sudah mengenal program internet goes to school, community acces point, e-learning, dan smart campus. Penerapan tersebut harus kita manfaatkan semaksimal mungkin agar gegerasi penerus memiliki sumber daya manusia yang lebih berkualitas dibandingkan sebelumnya.

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New Technology Can Improve The Quality of Out Life For The Blind

by on May.03, 2010, under Information Technology

techChances are the people who need to read this news story the most, won't be able to. That's because it will be presented on a newspaper website, or in a newspaper column with a 10-point font. That's makes it difficult for those who are legally blind.

They will be able to read this however if they're among those fortunate enough to get their hands of some of the new high-tech assistive devices for the blind.

fctAdTag(“bigbox”,MyGenericTagVar,1);

“Ninety per cent of the people who we say are legally blind are in fact able to see to some degree,” said Mark Callaghan, an Independent Living Skills specialist with the CNIB in Timmins. He was one of the organizers of the Technical Aids Show held at Northern College last week in Timmins to show off many of new technical aids that enable those with vision impairment to read.

Callaghan, who is totally blind, admits he is impressed with the growing level of technology available to those with vision problems.

“It basically gives you access to information,” which is critical for a blind person, said Callaghan.

He explained that he subscribes to a service that provides him with an audio CD that has Reader's Digest and McLean's magazine in a spoken format, which enables him to stay current. Callaghan says audio versions of books are also part of his regular routine.

“When I'm with a group of people and they're having a really good conversation about a book they've read, I can say yeah I've read that book too, which is a really nice feeling,” he said.

'TECHNOLOGY GOES CRAZY'

One of the exhibitors at the show, Stephen Ricci of Toronto, is with Frontier Computing. His job is to travel around the province showing off some of the devices now available to the vision-impaired.

“The technology has just been going crazy,” said Ricci

“A couple of years ago, there wasn't many advancements in the hand-held electronic magnifier category,” said Ricci. He said a Korean company then introduced a compact digital magnifier device.

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New Tech Offers New Hope for Heart Attack Victims

by on May.02, 2010, under Information Technology

lifenet-device

It takes an average of 90 minutes to get a heart attack patient into surgery, but a new device being used here in North Texas, called LIFENET, promises to cut that number by nearly a third.

“As a patient is having a heart attack, they’re losing heart muscle. Their muscle is dying,” said cardiologist Eric Eichhorn of Medical City Dallas.

Medical City is the first hospital in North Texas to get the technology, but in order for it to work, the paramedics in the field must have one too. So the hospital donated one unit to every ambulance in the Dallas Fire-Rescue fleet.

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New Energy Completes Commercial-Scale Prototype Able to Generate Electricity from Moving Trucks, Long-Haul Rigs, and Buses

by on Apr.30, 2010, under Information Technology

“The successful completion of our brand new MotionPower(TM)-Heavy system at its full commercial scale is a pivotal accomplishment for New Energy, which now enables us to launch field tests and optimize our technology for eventual commercial installation and deployment,” stated Mr. Meetesh V. Patel, President and CEO of New Energy Technologies, Inc.

“With the most perplexing invention phase of our early research and development behind us, I’m eager to have our team complete the more manageable mechanical tasks associated with tweaking the engineering, identifying the best electricity storage systems, and engaging strategic manufacturing partners to help us advance MotionPower(TM) towards commercialization.”

The Company has painstakingly completed the technically complex and unpredictable invention, design, proof-of-concept, and prototyping phases of its MotionPower(TM) development plan, having successfully invented, designed, fabricated, assembled, prototyped, scaled-up, and lab-tested the Company’s newest patent-pending technologies for generating sustainable electricity from the motion of vehicles.

As a result, the Company today announced plans to aggressively advance its novel MotionPower(TM) systems towards the next phase of product development and commercial deployment, primarily focusing on mechanical and electrical engineering refinements, materials selection, and manufacturing processes.

“Our next steps put us on a much-anticipated conventional product development path, often a more predictable engineering course than the early invention process, which in contrast, has required us to solve the many random and unforeseen engineering challenges inherent to creating a brand new invention,” explained Mr. Patel.

“Importantly, these next steps could provide our business with the information we need in order to establish a competitive pricing model, characterize our power output profile, and present a definitive timeline for commercial deployment,” continued Mr. Patel. “Above all, the data we acquire through conventional product development steps could serve to replace any timing and cost ‘estimates’ — which can often be hit-and-miss — with better defined and more reliable forecasts based on quantifiable metrics related to materials, manufacturing, and other considerations.”

Having completed the Company’s early invention research phase, engineers will work towards the selection of product materials and manufacturing systems which can increase durability while reducing production costs, and will further refine specific sub-systems to maximize ‘kinetic’ energy capture from vehicles and boost the electricity generated from the motion of vehicles on our roadways.

More than 250 million vehicles are registered in America, and an estimated 6 billion miles are driven on our nation’s roads every day. As millions of commercial heavy vehicles and cars slow or come to a stop at toll plazas, rest areas, traffic calming areas, drive-thrus, weigh scales, and countless other roadway points, excess ‘kinetic’ energy is produced similar to the kinetic energy present when a bicycle continues to roll even after a cyclist has stopped pedaling.

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